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Chapter 4 — Steel: Appendix

Table A-4.1: Steel properties1

CategoryASTM designationYield stress, Fy (ksi)(Ultimate) tensile stress, Fu (ksi)Preferred for these shapes
Carbon A36
A500 Gr. B
A500 Gr. B
A53 Gr. B
36
42
46
235
58
58
58
60
M, S, C, MC, L, plates4 and bars
HSS round5
HSS rectangular5
Pipe
High-strength, low-alloy A992
A572 Gr. 50
50
50
65
65
3W
HP
Corrosion resistant, high-strength, low-alloy A588
A242
50
42–50
70
63–70
 
Low alloy reinforcing bars A615 40
60
75
60
90
100
Rebar
Bolts F3125 A325 n/a 120 High-strength bolts, 0.5 – 1.5 in. diameter
A490 n/a 150 High-strength bolts, 0.5 – 1.5 in. diameter
F3043 n/a 200 Check availability for these bolts, 1 – 1.25 in. diameter
A307 Gr. A n/a 60 Common bolts
Cold-formed A653 Gr. 33 33 45 Connector plates4 in wood construction

Notes:

1. The modulus of elasticity, E, for these steels can be taken as 29,000 ksi.

2. Steel with Fy = 35 ksi may be designed as if the yield stress is Fy = 36 ksi.

3. W-shapes have formerly been specified in A36; current practice in the U.S. is to use A992 with Fy = 50 ksi.

4. In wood fastener design, the dowel bearing strength of connector plates, Fe equals 1.5Fu (for A36 hot-rolled steel) and 1.375Fu (for A653 GR 33 cold-formed steel). These values are 1.6 times less than those permitted in steel structures so that they can be used in yield limit equations for wood members that have load duration adjustments (adjustments that may be as high as 1.6 for wind or seismic).

5. HSS can also be specified by ASTM A1085 and A1065, which follow somewhat different rules and are not considered in this text.


Table A-4.2: Steel allowable stresses and available strengths

Type of structural action Allowable stress1 (same units as Fy or Fu) Available strength limit states (with safety factor, Ω)4
Tension Ftgross = 0.60Fy (yielding)
 
 
Ftnet = 0.50Fu (rupture)
equation
Compression See Tables A-4.11 through A-4.14 (analysis) or A-4.10 (design)
Bending2, assuming laterally braced, compact section Fb = 0.60Fy (used with plastic section modulus, Zx)
   or
Fb = 0.66Fy (used with elastic section modulus, Sx)
equation
 
The available strength method has no official limit state for the elastic moment
Shear3 Fv = 0.40Fy equation

Notes:

1. Allowable stresses, although no longer officially sanctioned by the American Institute of Steel Construction, result in the same values that are obtained when considering available strength, except in the case of bending. For bending, the limit state defined by the elastic moment, formerly the basis of allowable stress design, is no longer applicable, although it can still be used with somewhat conservative results for laterally-braced, compact sections. On the other hand, an allowable stress equation can be formulated based on the plastic section modulus that is equivalent to the available strength equation for laterally-braced, compact sections.

2. The allowable stress for bending, 0.66Fb, used with the elastic section modulus, Sx, gives a generally conservative value compared with using Ω = 1.67 and the plastic section modulus, Zx. To reconcile these two different safety factors, it is necessary to approximate the ratio of Zx/Sx, which varies depending upon the cross section. This ratio can be taken conservatively as 1.1 for W shapes; therefore, Zx = 1.1Sx, and the allowable moment, Mp /Ω = FyZx/Ω = 1.1FySx/Ω = 1.1FySx/1.67 = 0.66FbSx, which corresponds to the assumptions used for an allowable bending stress.

3. Both the allowable stress and available strength values for shear assume I-shape symbol-shaped rolled members meeting the slenderness criteria for beam webs. For beam webs that do not meet slenderness criteria for shear, a reduced allowable shear stress, Fv = 0.36Fy, is used. This is equivalent to using an increased allowable strength design safety factor, Ω = 1.67, and applies to the following W-shapes: W12 × 14, W16 × 26, W24 × 55, W30 × 90, W33 × 118, W36 × 135, W40 × 149, and W44 × 230. For the rectangular HSS listed in Appendix Table A-4.6, the reduced shear stress, Fv = 0.36Fy, is also used, with a web area, Aw, equal to 2ht (where t is the wall thickness of the web and h can be assumed to equal the nominal depth minus 3t). The value for the coefficient Cv is equal to 1.0 for all W-shapes, and is not included in the shear equations. For cross sections with very thin webs, this coefficient needs to be considered.

4. In these equations for various limit states, the subscript a refers to the available strength of the cross section, that is, the strength that is considered safe. The subscript n refers to the nominal strength of the cross section, that is, the actual limit state of the material. In other words, Pa is equivalent to the maximum tension force that the cross section can safely sustain; Ma is equivalent to the maximum bending moment that the cross section can safely sustain; and Va is equivalent to the maximum shear force that the cross section can safely sustain.


Table A-4.3: Dimensions and properties of steel W sections5

wide-flange dimensions and properties
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W4 × 133.834.160.2804.060.3455.466.2811.33.861.00
W5 16
W5 19
4.71
5.56
5.01
5.15
0.240
0.270
5.00
5.03
0.360
0.430
8.55
10.2
9.63
11.6
21.4
26.3
7.51
9.13
1.26
1.28
W6 × 8.52
W6 × 92
W6 × 12
W6 × 16
2.52
2.68
3.55
4.74
5.83
5.90
6.03
6.28
0.170
0.170
0.230
0.260
3.94
3.94
4.00
4.03
0.195
0.215
0.280
0.405
5.10
5.56
7.31
10.2
5.73
6.23
8.30
11.7
14.9
16.4
22.1
32.1
1.99
2.20
2.99
4.43
0.890
0.905
0.918
0.967
W6 151
W6 20
W6 25
4.43
5.87
7.34
5.99
6.20
6.38
0.230
0.260
0.320
5.99
6.02
6.08
0.260
0.365
0.455
9.72
13.4
16.7
10.8
14.9
18.9
29.1
41.4
53.4
9.32
13.3
17.1
1.45
1.50
1.52
W8 102,4
W8 13
W8 15
2.96
3.84
4.44
7.89
7.99
8.11
0.170
0.230
0.245
3.94
4.00
4.02
0.205
0.255
0.315
7.81
9.91
11.8
8.87
11.4
13.6
30.8
39.6
48.0
2.09
2.73
3.41
0.841
0.843
0.876
W8 18
W8 21
5.26
6.16
8.14
8.28
0.230
0.250
5.250
5.270
0.330
0.400
15.2
18.2
17.0
20.4
61.9
75.3
7.97
9.77
1.23
1.26
W8 24
W8 28
7.08
8.25
7.93
8.06
0.245
0.285
6.50
6.54
0.400
0.465
20.9
24.3
23.1
27.2
82.7
98.0
18.3
21.7
1.61
1.62
W8 312
W8 35
W8 40
W8 48
W8 58
W8 67
9.13
10.3
11.7
14.1
17.1
19.7
8.00
8.12
8.25
8.50
8.75
9.00
0.285
0.310
0.360
0.400
0.510
0.570
8.00
8.02
8.07
8.11
8.22
8.28
0.435
0.495
0.560
0.685
0.810
0.935
27.5
31.2
35.5
43.2
52.0
60.4
30.4
34.7
39.8
49.0
59.8
70.1
110
127
146
184
228
272
37.1
42.6
49.1
60.9
75.1
88.6
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.08
2.10
2.12
W10 122,4
W10 154
W10 174
W10 19
3.54
4.41
4.99
5.62
9.87
10.0
10.1
10.2
0.190
0.230
0.240
0.250
3.96
4.00
4.01
4.02
0.210
0.270
0.330
0.395
10.9
13.8
16.2
18.8
12.6
16.0
18.7
21.6
53.8
68.9
81.9
96.3
2.18
2.89
3.56
4.29
0.785
0.810
0.845
0.874
W10 224
W10 26
W10 30
6.49
7.61
8.84
10.2
10.3
10.5
0.240
0.260
0.300
5.75
5.77
5.81
0.360
0.440
0.510
23.2
27.9
32.4
26.0
31.3
36.6
118
144
170
11.4
14.1
16.7
1.33
1.36
1.37
W10 33
W10 39
W10 45
9.71
11.5
13.3
9.73
9.92
10.10
0.290
0.315
0.350
7.96
7.99
8.02
0.435
0.530
0.620
35.0
42.1
49.1
38.8
46.8
54.9
171
209
248
36.6
45.0
53.4
1.94
1.98
2.01
W10 49
W10 54
W10 60
W10 68
W10 77
W10 88
W10 100
W10 112
14.4
15.8
17.7
19.9
22.7
26.0
29.3
32.9
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.4
10.6
10.8
11.1
11.4
0.340
0.370
0.420
0.470
0.530
0.605
0.680
0.755
10.0
10.0
10.1
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.4
0.560
0.615
0.680
0.770
0.870
0.990
1.120
1.250
54.6
60.0
66.7
75.7
85.9
98.5
112
126
60.4
66.6
74.6
85.3
97.6
113
130
147
272
303
341
394
455
534
623
716
93.4
103
116
134
154
179
207
236
2.54
2.56
2.57
2.59
2.60
2.63
2.65
2.68
W12 143,4
W12 164
W12 194
W12 224
4.16
4.71
5.57
6.48
11.9
12.0
12.2
12.3
0.200
0.220
0.235
0.260
3.97
3.99
4.01
4.03
0.225
0.265
0.350
0.425
14.9
17.1
21.3
25.4
17.4
20.1
24.7
29.3
88.6
103
130
156
2.36
2.82
3.76
4.66
0.753
0.773
0.822
0.848
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W12 264
W12 304
W12 354
7.65
8.79
10.3
12.2
12.3
12.5
0.230
0.260
0.300
6.49
6.52
6.56
0.380
0.440
0.520
33.4
38.6
45.6
37.2
43.1
51.2
204
238
285
17.3
20.3
24.5
1.51
1.52
1.54
W12 40
W12 45
W12 50
11.7
13.1
14.6
11.9
12.1
12.2
0.295
0.335
0.370
8.01
8.05
8.08
0.515
0.575
0.640
51.5
57.7
64.2
57.0
64.2
71.9
307
348
391
44.1
50.0
56.3
1.94
1.95
1.96
W12 53
W12 58
15.6
17.0
12.1
12.2
0.345
0.360
10.0
10.0
0.575
0.640
70.6
78.0
77.9
86.4
425
475
95.8
107
2.48
2.51
W12 652
W12 72
W12 79
W12 87
W12 96
W12 106
W12 120
W12 136
W12 152
W12 170
W12 190
W12 210
W12 230
W12 252
W12 279
W12 305
W12 336
19.1
21.1
23.2
25.6
28.2
31.2
35.2
39.9
44.7
50.0
56.0
61.8
67.7
74.1
81.9
89.5
98.9
12.1
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.7
12.9
13.1
13.4
13.7
14.0
14.4
14.7
15.1
15.4
15.9
16.3
16.8
0.390
0.430
0.470
0.515
0.550
0.610
0.710
0.790
0.870
0.960
1.06
1.18
1.29
1.40
1.53
1.63
1.78
12.0
12.0
12.1
12.1
12.2
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
13.0
13.1
13.2
13.4
0.605
0.670
0.735
0.810
0.900
0.990
1.11
1.25
1.40
1.56
1.74
1.90
2.07
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.96
87.9
97.4
107
118
131
145
163
186
209
235
263
292
321
353
393
435
483
96.8
108
119
132
147
164
186
214
243
275
311
348
386
428
481
537
603
533
597
662
740
833
933
1070
1240
1430
1650
1890
2140
2420
2720
3110
3550
4060
174
195
216
241
270
301
345
398
454
517
589
664
742
828
937
1050
1190
3.02
3.04
3.05
3.07
3.09
3.11
3.13
3.16
3.19
3.22
3.25
3.28
3.31
3.34
3.38
3.42
3.47
W14 224
W14 264
6.49
7.69
13.7
13.9
0.230
0.255
5.00
5.03
0.335
0.420
29.0
35.3
33.2
40.2
199
245
7.00
8.91
1.04
1.08
W14 304
W14 344
W14 384
8.85
10.0
11.2
13.8
14.0
14.1
0.270
0.285
0.310
6.73
6.75
6.77
0.385
0.455
0.515
42.0
48.6
54.6
47.3
54.6
61.5
291
340
385
19.6
23.3
26.7
1.49
1.53
1.55
W14 434
W14 48
W14 53
12.6
14.1
15.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
0.305
0.340
0.370
8.00
8.03
8.06
0.530
0.595
0.660
62.6
70.2
77.8
69.6
78.4
87.1
428
484
541
45.2
51.4
57.7
1.89
1.91
1.92
W14 61
W14 68
W14 74
W14 82
17.9
20.0
21.8
24.0
13.9
14.0
14.2
14.3
0.375
0.415
0.450
0.510
10.0
10.0
10.1
10.1
0.645
0.720
0.785
0.855
92.1
103
112
123
102
115
126
139
640
722
795
881
107
121
134
148
2.45
2.46
2.48
2.48
W14 902
W14 992
W14 109
W14 120
W14 132
26.5
29.1
32.0
35.3
38.8
14.0
14.2
14.3
14.5
14.7
0.440
0.485
0.525
0.590
0.645
14.5
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.7
0.710
0.780
0.860
0.940
1.03
143
157
173
190
209
157
173
192
212
234
999
1110
1240
1380
1530
362
402
447
495
548
3.70
3.71
3.73
3.74
3.76
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W14 145
W14 159
W14 176
W14 193
W14 211
W14 233
W14 257
W14 283
W14 311
W14 342
W14 370
W14 398
W14 426
W14 455
W14 500
W14 550
W14 605
W14 665
W14 730
W14 808
W14 873
42.7
46.7
51.8
56.8
62.0
68.5
75.6
83.3
91.4
101
109
117
125
134
147
162
178
196
215
238
257
14.8
15.0
15.2
15.5
15.7
16.0
16.4
16.7
17.1
17.5
17.9
18.3
18.7
19.0
19.6
20.2
20.9
21.6
22.4
22.8
23.6
0.680
0.745
0.830
0.890
0.980
1.07
1.18
1.29
1.41
1.54
1.66
1.77
1.88
2.02
2.19
2.38
2.60
2.83
3.07
3.74
3.94
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.7
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
17.0
17.2
17.4
17.7
17.9
18.6
18.8
1.09
1.19
1.31
1.44
1.56
1.72
1.89
2.07
2.26
2.47
2.66
2.85
3.04
3.21
3.50
3.82
4.16
4.52
4.91
5.12
5.51
232
254
281
310
338
375
415
459
506
558
607
656
706
756
838
931
1040
1150
1280
1390
1530
260
287
320
355
390
436
487
542
603
672
736
801
869
936
1050
1180
1320
1480
1660
1830
2030
1710
1900
2140
2400
2660
3010
3400
3840
4330
4900
5440
6000
6600
7190
8210
9430
10800
12400
14300
15900
18100
677
748
838
931
1030
1150
1290
1440
1610
1810
1990
2170
2360
2560
2880
3250
3680
4170
4720
5550
6170
3.98
4.00
4.02
4.05
4.07
4.10
4.13
4.17
4.20
4.24
4.27
4.31
4.34
4.38
4.43
4.49
4.55
4.62
4.69
4.83
4.90
W16 263,4
W16 314
7.68
9.13
15.7
15.9
0.250
0.275
5.50
5.53
0.345
0.440
38.4
47.2
44.2
54.0
301
375
9.59
12.4
1.12
1.17
W16 364
W16 404
W16 454
W16 504
W16 57
10.6
11.8
13.3
14.7
16.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.3
16.4
0.295
0.305
0.345
0.380
0.430
6.99
7.00
7.04
7.07
7.12
0.430
0.505
0.565
0.630
0.715
56.5
64.7
72.7
81.0
92.2
64.0
73.0
82.3
92.0
105
448
518
586
659
758
24.5
28.9
32.8
37.2
43.1
1.52
1.57
1.57
1.59
1.60
W16 674
W16 77
W16 89
W16 100
19.6
22.6
26.2
29.4
16.3
16.5
16.8
17.0
16.3
16.5
16.8
17.0
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.4
0.665
0.760
0.875
0.985
117
134
155
175
130
150
175
198
954
1110
1300
1490
119
138
163
186
2.46
2.47
2.49
2.51
W18 354
W18 404
W18 464
10.3
11.8
13.5
17.7
17.9
18.1
0.300
0.315
0.360
6.00
6.02
6.06
0.425
0.525
0.605
57.6
68.4
78.8
66.5
78.4
90.7
510
612
712
15.3
19.1
22.5
1.22
1.27
1.29
W18 504
W18 554
W18 604
W18 65
W18 71
14.7
16.2
17.6
19.1
20.9
18.0
18.1
18.2
18.4
18.5
0.355
0.390
0.415
0.450
0.495
7.50
7.53
7.56
7.59
7.64
0.570
0.630
0.695
0.750
0.810
88.9
98.3
108
117
127
101
112
123
133
146
800
890
984
1070
1170
40.1
44.9
50.1
54.8
60.3
1.65
1.67
1.68
1.69
1.70
W18 764
W18 86
W18 97
W18 106
W18 119
W18 130
W18 143
W18 158
W18 175
W18 192
W18 211
W18 234
W18 258
W18 283
W18 311
22.3
25.3
28.5
31.1
35.1
38.3
42.0
46.3
51.4
56.2
62.3
68.8
76.0
83.3
91.6
18.2
18.4
18.6
18.7
19.0
19.3
19.5
19.7
20.0
20.4
20.7
21.1
21.5
21.9
22.3
0.425
0.480
0.535
0.590
0.655
0.670
0.730
0.810
0.890
0.960
1.06
1.16
1.28
1.40
1.52
11.0
11.1
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.2
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
12.0
0.680
0.770
0.870
0.940
1.06
1.20
1.32
1.44
1.59
1.75
1.91
2.11
2.30
2.50
2.74
146
166
188
204
231
256
282
310
344
380
419
466
514
565
624
163
186
211
230
262
290
322
356
398
442
490
549
611
676
754
1330
1530
1750
1910
2190
2460
2750
3060
3450
3870
4330
4900
5510
6170
6970
152
175
201
220
253
278
311
347
391
440
493
558
628
704
795
2.61
2.63
2.65
2.66
2.69
2.70
2.72
2.74
2.76
2.79
2.82
2.85
2.88
2.91
2.95
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W21 444
W21 504
W21 574
13.0
14.7
16.7
20.7
20.8
21.1
0.350
0.380
0.405
6.50
6.53
6.56
0.450
0.535
0.650
81.6
94.5
111
95.4
110
129
843
984
1170
20.7
24.9
30.6
1.26
1.30
1.35
W21 482,4
W21 554
W21 624
W21 684
W21 734
W21 834
W21 93
14.1
16.2
18.3
20.0
21.5
24.4
27.3
20.6
20.8
21.0
21.1
21.2
21.4
21.6
0.350
0.375
0.400
0.430
0.455
0.515
0.580
8.14
8.22
8.24
8.27
8.30
8.36
8.42
0.430
0.522
0.615
0.685
0.740
0.835
0.930
93.0
110
127
140
151
171
192
107
126
144
160
172
196
221
959
1140
1330
1480
1600
1830
2070
38.7
48.4
57.5
64.7
70.6
81.4
92.9
1.66
1.73
1.77
1.80
1.81
1.83
1.84
W21 1014
W21 111
W21 122
W21 132
W21 147
W21 166
W21 182
W21 201
W21 223
W21 248
W21 275
29.8
32.6
35.9
38.8
43.2
48.8
53.6
59.3
66.5
73.8
81.8
21.4
21.5
21.7
21.8
22.1
22.5
22.7
23.0
23.4
23.7
24.1
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.720
0.750
0.830
0.910
1.00
1.10
1.22
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
0.800
0.875
0.960
1.04
1.15
1.36
1.48
1.63
1.79
1.99
2.19
227
249
273
295
329
380
417
461
520
576
638
253
279
307
333
373
432
476
530
601
671
749
2420
2670
2960
3220
3630
4280
4730
5310
6080
6830
7690
248
274
305
333
376
435
483
542
614
699
787
2.89
2.90
2.92
2.93
2.95
2.99
3.00
3.02
3.04
3.08
3.10
W24 553,4
W24 624
16.2
18.2
23.6
23.7
0.395
0.430
7.01
7.04
0.505
0.590
114
131
134
153
1350
1550
29.1
34.5
1.34
1.38
W24 684
W24 764
W24 844
W24 944
W24 1034
20.1
22.4
24.7
27.7
30.3
23.7
23.9
24.1
24.3
24.5
0.415
0.440
0.470
0.515
0.550
8.97
8.99
9.02
9.07
9.00
0.585
0.680
0.770
0.875
0.980
154
176
196
222
245
177
200
224
254
280
1830
2100
2370
2700
3000
70.4
82.5
94.4
109
119
1.87
1.92
1.95
1.98
1.99
W24 1044
W24 1174
W24 131
W24 146
W24 162
W24 176
W24 192
W24 207
W24 229
W24 250
W24 279
W24 306
W24 335
W24 370
30.7
34.4
38.6
43.0
47.8
51.7
56.5
60.7
67.2
73.5
81.9
89.7
98.3
109
24.1
24.3
24.5
24.7
25.0
25.2
25.5
25.7
26.0
26.3
26.7
27.1
27.5
28.0
0.500
0.550
0.605
0.650
0.705
0.750
0.810
0.870
0.960
1.04
1.16
1.26
1.38
1.52
12.8
12.8
12.9
12.9
13.0
12.9
13.0
13.0
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.7
0.750
0.850
0.960
1.09
1.22
1.34
1.46
1.57
1.73
1.89
2.09
2.28
2.48
2.72
258
291
329
371
414
450
491
531
588
644
718
789
864
957
289
327
370
418
468
511
559
606
675
744
835
922
1020
1130
3100
3540
4020
4580
5170
5680
6260
6820
7650
8490
9600
10700
11900
13400
259
297
340
391
443
479
530
578
651
724
823
919
1030
1160
2.91
2.94
2.97
3.01
3.05
3.04
3.07
3.08
3.11
3.14
3.17
3.20
3.23
3.27
W27 844
W27 944
W27 1024
W27 1144
W27 1294
24.7
27.6
30.0
33.6
37.8
26.7
26.9
27.1
27.3
27.6
0.460
0.490
0.515
0.570
0.610
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.1
10.0
0.640
0.745
0.830
0.930
1.10
213
243
267
299
345
244
278
305
343
395
2850
3270
3620
4080
4760
106
124
139
159
184
2.07
2.12
2.15
2.18
2.21
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W27 1464
W27 1614
W27 178
W27 194
W27 217
W27 235
W27 258
W27 281
W27 307
W27 336
W27 368
W27 539
43.2
47.6
52.5
57.1
63.9
69.4
76.1
83.1
90.2
99.2
109
159
27.4
27.6
27.8
28.1
28.4
28.7
29.0
29.3
29.6
30.0
30.4
32.5
0.605
0.660
0.725
0.750
0.830
0.910
0.980
1.06
1.16
1.26
1.38
1.97
14.0
14.0
14.1
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.6
14.7
15.3
0.975
1.08
1.19
1.34
1.50
1.61
1.77
1.93
2.09
2.28
2.48
3.54
414
458
505
559
627
677
745
814
887
972
1060
1570
464
515
570
631
711
772
852
936
1030
1130
1240
1890
5660
6310
7020
7860
8910
9700
10800
11900
13100
14600
16200
25600
443
497
555
619
704
769
859
953
1050
1180
1310
2110
3.20
3.23
3.25
3.29
3.32
3.33
3.36
3.39
3.41
3.45
3.48
3.65
W30 903,4
W30 994
W30 1084
W30 1164
W30 1244
W30 1324
W30 1484
26.3
29.0
31.7
34.2
36.5
38.8
43.6
29.5
29.7
29.8
30.0
30.2
30.3
30.7
0.470
0.520
0.545
0.565
0.585
0.615
0.650
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
0.610
0.670
0.760
0.850
0.930
1.00
1.18
245
269
299
329
355
380
436
283
312
346
378
408
437
500
3610
3990
4470
4930
5360
5770
6680
115
128
146
164
181
196
227
2.09
2.10
2.15
2.19
2.23
2.25
2.28
W30 1734
W30 1914
W30 211
W30 235
W30 261
W30 292
W30 326
W30 357
W30 391
50.9
56.1
62.3
69.3
77.0
86.0
95.9
105
115
30.4
30.7
30.9
31.3
31.6
32.0
32.4
32.8
33.2
0.655
0.710
0.775
0.830
0.930
1.02
1.14
1.24
1.36
15.0
15.0
15.1
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
1.07
1.19
1.32
1.50
1.65
1.85
2.05
2.24
2.44
541
600
665
748
829
930
1040
1140
1250
607
675
751
847
943
1060
1190
1320
1450
8230
9200
10300
11700
13100
14900
16800
18700
20700
598
673
757
855
959
1100
1240
1390
1550
3.42
3.46
3.49
3.51
3.53
3.58
3.60
3.64
3.67
W33 1183,4
W33 1304
W33 1414
W33 1524
W33 1694
34.7
38.3
41.5
44.9
49.5
32.9
33.1
33.3
33.5
33.8
0.550
0.580
0.605
0.635
0.670
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.5
0.740
0.855
0.960
1.06
1.22
359
406
448
487
549
415
467
514
559
629
5900
6710
7450
8160
9290
187
218
246
273
310
2.32
2.39
2.43
2.47
2.50
W33 2014
W33 2214
W33 2414
W33 263
W33 291
W33 318
W33 354
W33 387
59.1
65.3
71.1
77.4
85.6
93.7
104
114
33.7
33.9
34.2
34.5
34.8
35.2
35.6
36.0
0.715
0.775
0.830
0.870
0.960
1.04
1.16
1.26
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.2
1.15
1.28
1.40
1.57
1.73
1.89
2.09
2.28
686
759
831
919
1020
1110
1240
1350
773
857
940
1040
1160
1270
1420
1560
11600
12900
14200
15900
17700
19500
22000
24300
749
840
933
1040
1160
1290
1460
1620
3.56
3.59
3.62
3.66
3.68
3.71
3.74
3.77
W36 1353,4
W36 1504
W36 1604
W36 1704
W36 1824
W36 1944
W36 2104
W36 2324
W36 256
39.9
44.3
47.0
50.0
53.6
57.0
61.9
68.0
75.3
35.6
35.9
36.0
36.2
36.3
36.5
36.7
37.1
37.4
0.600
0.625
0.650
0.680
0.725
0.765
0.830
0.870
0.960
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.1
12.1
12.2
12.1
12.2
0.790
0.940
1.02
1.10
1.18
1.26
1.36
1.57
1.73
439
504
542
581
623
664
719
809
895
509
581
624
668
718
767
833
936
1040
7800
9040
9760
10500
11300
12100
13200
15000
16800
225
270
295
320
347
375
411
468
528
2.38
2.47
2.50
2.53
2.55
2.56
2.58
2.62
2.65
Designa-
tion
A
(in2)
d
(in.)
tw
(in.)
bf
(in.)
tf
(in.)
Sx
(in3)
Zx
(in3)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
ry
(in.)
W36 2314
W36 2474
W36 2624
W36 2824
W36 302
W36 330
W36 361
W36 395
W36 441
W36 487
W36 529
W36 652
W36 723
W36 802
W36 853
W36 925
68.2
72.5
77.2
82.9
89.0
96.9
106
116
130
143
156
192
213
236
251
272
36.5
36.7
36.9
37.1
37.3
37.7
38.0
38.4
38.9
39.3
39.8
41.1
41.8
42.6
43.1
43.1
0.760
0.800
0.840
0.885
0.945
1.02
1.12
1.22
1.36
1.50
1.61
1.97
2.17
2.38
2.52
3.02
16.5
16.5
16.6
16.6
16.7
16.6
16.7
16.8
17.0
17.1
17.2
17.6
17.8
18.0
18.2
18.6
1.26
1.35
1.44
1.57
1.68
1.85
2.01
2.20
2.44
2.68
2.91
3.54
3.90
4.29
4.53
4.53
854
913
972
1050
1130
1240
1350
1490
1650
1830
1990
2460
2740
3040
3250
3390
963
1030
1100
1190
1280
1410
1550
1710
1910
2130
2330
2910
3270
3660
3920
4130
15600
16700
17900
19600
21100
23300
25700
28500
32100
36000
39600
50600
57300
64800
70000
73000
940
1010
1090
1200
1300
1420
1570
1750
1990
2250
2490
3230
3700
4210
4600
4940
3.71
3.74
3.76
3.80
3.82
3.83
3.85
3.88
3.92
3.96
4.00
4.10
4.17
4.22
4.28
4.26
W40 1493,4
W40 1674
W40 1834
W40 2114
W40 2354
W40 264
W40 278
W40 294
W40 327
W40 331
W40 392
43.8
49.3
53.3
62.1
69.1
77.4
82.3
86.2
95.9
97.7
116
38.2
38.6
39.0
39.4
39.7
40.0
40.2
40.4
40.8
40.8
41.6
0.630
0.650
0.650
0.750
0.830
0.960
1.03
1.06
1.18
1.22
1.42
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.8
11.9
11.9
12.0
12.0
12.1
12.2
12.4
0.830
1.03
1.20
1.42
1.58
1.73
1.81
1.93
2.13
2.13
2.52
513
600
675
786
875
971
1020
1080
1200
1210
1440
598
693
774
906
1010
1130
1190
1270
1410
1430
1710
9800
11600
13200
15500
17400
19400
20500
21900
24500
24700
29900
229
283
331
390
444
493
521
562
640
644
803
2.29
2.40
2.49
2.51
2.54
2.52
2.52
2.55
2.58
2.57
2.64
W40 1994
W40 2154
W40 2494
W40 2774
W40 2974
W40 324
W40 362
W40 372
W40 397
W40 431
W40 503
W40 593
W40 655
58.8
63.5
73.5
81.5
87.3
95.3
106
110
117
127
148
174
193
38.7
39.0
39.4
39.7
39.8
40.2
40.6
40.6
41.0
41.3
42.1
43.0
43.6
0.650
0.650
0.750
0.830
0.930
1.00
1.12
1.16
1.22
1.34
1.54
1.79
1.97
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.1
16.2
16.4
16.7
16.9
1.07
1.22
1.42
1.58
1.65
1.81
2.01
2.05
2.20
2.36
2.76
3.23
3.54
770
859
993
1100
1170
1280
1420
1460
1560
1690
1980
2340
2590
869
964
1120
1250
1330
1460
1640
1680
1800
1960
2320
2760
3080
14900
16700
19600
21900
23200
25600
28900
29600
32000
34800
41600
50400
56500
695
796
926
1040
1090
1220
1380
1420
1540
1690
2040
2520
2870
3.45
3.54
3.55
3.58
3.54
3.58
3.60
3.60
3.64
3.65
3.72
3.80
3.86
W44 2303,4
W44 2624
W44 2904
W44 3354
67.8
77.2
85.4
98.5
42.9
43.3
43.6
44.0
0.710
0.785
0.865
1.03
15.8
15.8
15.8
15.9
1.22
1.42
1.58
1.77
971
1110
1240
1410
1100
1270
1410
1620
20800
24100
27000
31100
796
923
1040
1200
3.43
3.47
3.49
3.49

Notes:

1. Section not compact for steel with Fy = 36 ksi or Fy = 50 ksi.

2. Section compact for steel with Fy = 36 ksi, but not compact for steel with Fy = 50 ksi.

3. Section webs do not meet slenderness criteria for shear for which the allowable stress can be taken as Fv = 0.4Fy; instead, use a reduced allowable shear stress, Fv = 0.36Fy.

4. Section is slender for compression with Fy = 50 ksi.

5. W-shapes are grouped together with common inner roller dimensions (i.e., web "lengths" excluding fillets)


Table A-4.4: Dimensions and properties of steel C and MC channels

steel channel dimensions and properties
Designation A (in2) d (in.) tw (in.) bf (in.) x (in.) Ix (in4) Iy (in4)
C3 3.51.093.000.1321.370.4431.570.169
C3 4.11.203.000.1701.410.4371.650.191
C3 51.473.000.2581.500.4391.850.241
C3 61.763.000.3561.600.4552.070.300
C4 4.51.384.000.1251.580.4933.650.289
C4 5.41.584.000.1841.580.4573.850.312
C4 6.251.774.00 0.2471.650.4354.000.345
C4 7.252.134.000.3211.720.4594.580.425
C5 6.71.975.000.1901.750.4847.480.470
C5 92.645.000.3251.890.4788.890.624
C6 8.22.396.000.2001.920.51213.10.687
C6 10.53.086.000.3142.030.50015.10.860
C6 133.816.000.4372.160.51417.31.05
C7 9.82.877.000.2102.090.54121.20.957
C7 12.253.597.000.3142.190.52524.21.16
C7 14.754.337.000.4192.300.53227.21.37
C8 11.53.378.000.2202.260.57232.51.31
C8 13.754.038.000.3032.340.55436.11.52
C8 18.755.518.000.4872.530.56543.91.97
C9 13.43.949.000.2332.430.60147.81.75
C9 154.419.000.2852.490.58651.01.91
C9 205.879.000.4482.650.58360.92.41
C10 15.34.4810.00.2402.600.63467.32.27
C10 205.8710.00.3792.740.60678.92.80
C10 257.3410.00.5262.890.61791.13.34
C10 308.8110.00.6733.030.6491033.93
C12 20.76.0812.00.2822.940.698129 3.86
C12 257.3412.00.3873.050.6741444.45
C12 308.8112.00.5103.170.6741625.12
C15 33.910.015.00.4003.400.7883158.07
C15 4011.815.00.5203.520.7783489.17
C15 5014.715.00.7163.720.79940411.0
Designation A (in2) d (in.) tw (in.) bf (in.) x (in.) Ix (in4) Iy (in4)
MC3 7.12.113.000.3121.940.6532.720.666
MC4 13.84.034.000.5002.500.8498.852.13
MC6 6.51.956.000.1551.850.51311.00.565
MC6 72.096.000.1791.880.50111.40.603
MC6 123.536.000.3102.500.70418.71.85
MC6 15.14.446.000.3162.940.94024.93.46
MC6 16.34.796.000.3753.000.92726.03.77
MC6 15.34.496.000.3403.501.0525.34.91
MC6 185.296.000.3793.501.1229.75.88
MC7 19.15.617.000.3523.451.0843.16.06
MC7 22.76.677.000.5033.601.0447.47.24
MC8 8.52.508.000.1791.870.42823.30.624
MC8 18.75.508.000.3532.980.84952.44.15
MC8 205.888.000.4003.030.84054.44.42
MC8 21.46.288.000.3753.451.0261.56.58
MC8 22.86.708.000.4273.501.0163.87.01
MC9 23.97.029.000.4003.450.98184.97.14
MC9 25.47.479.000.4503.500.97087.97.57
MC10 6.511.9510.00.1521.170.19422.90.133
MC10 8.412.4610.00.1701.500.28431.90.326
MC10 226.4510.000.2903.320.9901026.40
MC10 257.3510.00.3803.410.9531107.25
MC10 28.58.3710.00.4253.951.1212611.3
MC10 33.69.8710.00.5754.101.0913913.1
MC10 41.112.110.00.7964.321.0915715.7
MC12 10.613.1012.00.1901.500.26955.30.378
MC12 14.34.1812.00.2502.120.37776.11.00
MC12 319.1212.00.3703.671.0820211.3
MC12 3510.312.00.4653.771.0521612.6
MC12 4011.812.00.5903.891.0423414.2
MC12 4513.212.00.7104.011.0425115.8
MC12 5014.712.00.8354.141.0526917.4
MC13 31.89.3513.00.3754.001.0023911.4
MC13 3510.313.00.4474.070.98025212.3
MC13 4011.813.00.5604.190.96327313.7
MC13 5014.713.00.7874.410.97431416.4
MC18 42.712.618.00.4503.950.87755414.3
MC18 45.813.518.00.5004.000.86657814.9
MC18 51.915.3 18.00.6004.100.85862716.3
MC18 5817.118.00.7004.200.86267517.6

Note:

1. Section is slender for compression with Fy = 36 ksi.


Table A-4.5: Dimensions and properties of selected steel L angles

A. Angles with equal legs
Steel angle dimensions and properties
Designation A (in2) d (in.) tw (in.) x (in.) Ix or Iy (in4) Iz (in4)
L2 2 ⅛1,20.4912.000.12500.5340.1890.0751
L2 2 ¼0.9442.000.25000.5860.3460.141
L2 2 5⁄161.162.000.31250.6090.4140.173
L2 2 ⅜1.372.000.37500.6320.4760.203
L3 3 3⁄161,21.093.000.18750.8120.9480.374
L3 3 ¼1.443.000.25000.8361.230.491
L3 3 ⅜2.113.000.37500.8841.750.712
L3 3 ½2.763.000.50000.9292.200.924
L4 4 ¼1,21.934.000.25001.083.001.18
L4 4 ⅜2.864.000.37501.134.321.73
L4 4 ½3.754.000.50001.185.522.25
L4 4 ¾5.444.000.75001.277.623.25
L5 5 5⁄161,23.075.000.31251.357.443.01
L5 5 7⁄164.225.000.43751.4010.04.08
L5 5 ⅝5.905.000.62501.4713.65.61
L5 5 ⅞8.005.000.87501.5617.87.56
L6 6 5⁄161,23.676.000.31251.60 13.05.20
L6 6 ½5.776.000.50001.6719.9 8.04
L6 6 ¾8.466.000.75001.77 28.111.6
L6 6 111.06.001.00001.8635.415.0
L8 8 ½1,27.848.00 0.50002.17 48.819.7
L8 8 ⅝9.698.000.62502.2159.624.2
L8 8 ⅞13.38.000.87502.3179.732.7
L8 8 1⅛16.88.001.12502.4098.140.9
B. Angles with unequal legs
Steel angle dimensions and properties
Designation A
(in2)
d
(in.)
b
(in.)
tw
(in.)
x
(in.)
y
(in.)
Ix
(in4)
Iy
(in4)
Iz
(in4)
α
(°)
L3 2 ¼1.203.002.000.25000.4870.9801.090.3900.22323.6
L3 2 5⁄161.483.002.000.31250.5111.011.320.4670.27123.4
L3 2 ⅜1.753.002.000.37500.5351.031.540.5390.31823.1
L3 2 ½2.263.002.000.50000.5801.081.920.6670.40922.4
L3 2½ ¼1.323.002.500.25000.6530.9001.160.7340.35634.3
L3 2½ 5⁄161.633.002.500.31250.6770.9251.410.8880.43734.2
L3 2½ ⅜1.933.002.500.37500.7010.9491.651.030.51434.0
L3 2½ ½2.503.002.50 0.50000.7460.9952.071.290.66633.7
L3½ 2½ ¼21.453.502.500.25000.6071.101.810.7750.42526.7
L3½ 2½ 5⁄161.793.502.500.31250.6321.132.200.9370.51826.6
L3½ 2½ ⅜2.123.502.500.37500.6551.152.561.09 0.60826.3
L3-½ 2½ ½2.773.502.500.50000.7011.203.241.360.78225.9
L4 3 ¼1,21.694.003.000.25000.7251.222.751.330.69129.2
L4 3 ⅜2.494.003.000.37500.7751.273.941.891.0128.9
L4 3 ½3.254.003.000.50000.8221.325.022.401.3028.5
L4 3 ⅝3.994.003.000.62500.8671.376.012.851.5928.1
L4 3½ ¼1,21.824.003.500.25000.8971.142.892.070.95037.2
L4 3½ 5⁄162.254.003.500.31250.9231.173.532.521.1737.1
L4 3½ ⅜2.684.003.500.37500.9471.204.152.961.3837.1
L4 3½ ½3.504.003.500.50000.9941.245.303.761.80836.9
L5 3 ¼1,21.945.003.000.25000.6481.645.091.410.825 20.4
L5 3 5⁄161,22.415.003.000.31250.6731.676.241.721.0120.2
L5 3 ⅜22.865.003.000.37500.6981.697.352.011.2020.0
L5 3 ½3.755.003.000.50000.7461.74 9.432.551.5519.6
L5 3½ ¼1,22.075.003.500.25000.8041.555.362.201.19 26.1
L5 3½ ⅜23.055.003.500.37500.8541.607.753.151.7425.9
L5 3½ ½4.005.003.500.50000.9011.659.964.022.2525.6
L5 3½ ¾5.855.003.500.75000.9931.7413.95.523.2224.9
L6 3½ 5⁄161,22.896.003.500.31250.7562.0010.92.841.7019.4
L6 3½ ⅜1,23.446.003.500.37500.7812.0212.93.33 2.0019.2
L6 3½ ½4.506.003.50 0.50000.8292.0716.64.242.5818.9
L6 4 ⅜1,23.616.004.000.37500.9331.9313.44.862.7324.0
L6 4 ½4.756.004.000.50000.9811.9817.36.223.5523.7
L6 4 ⅝5.866.004.000.62501.032.0321.07.484.3223.5
L6 4 ⅞8.006.004.000.87501.122.1227.79.705.8222.8
L7 4 ⅜1,24.007.004.000.37500.8612.3520.55.063.0518.7
L7 4 ½25.267.004.000.50000.9102.4026.66.483.9518.5
L7 4 ⅝6.507.004.000.62500.9582.4532.47.794.8018.2
L7 4 ¾7.747.004.000.75001.002.5037.89.005.6418.0
L8 4 ½1,25.808.004.000.50000.8542.8438.66.754.3214.9
L8 4 ⅝7.168.004.00 0.62500.9022.8947.08.115.2414.7
L8 4 ¾8.498.004.000.75000.9492.9455.09.376.1314.4
L8 4 111.18.00 4.001.00001.04 3.0369.711.67.8713.9
L8 6 ½1,26.808.006.000.50001.462.4644.421.711.529.1
L8 6 ⅝8.418.006.000.62501.512.5054.226.414.129.0
L8 6 ⅞11.58.006.000.87501.602.6072.4 34.918.928.6
L8 6 113.1 8.006.001.00001.652.6580.938.821.328.5

Notes:

1. Section not compact for steel with Fy = 36 ksi.

2. Section slender for steel with Fy = 36 ksi.


Table A-4.6: Dimensions and properties of selected steel rectangular and square hollow structural sections (HSS)

,/tr5>
HSS dimensions and properties
Designation A (in2) Design wall thickness, t (in.)1 Sx (in3) Zx (in3) Ix (in4) Iy (in4) ry (in.)
HSS2 2 3/16
HSS2 2 1/4
1.19
1.51
0.174
0.233
0.641
0.747
0.797
0.964
0.641
0.747
0.641
0.747
0.733
0.704
HSS2 2 3/16
HSS2 2 5/16
1.54
2.35
1.54
2.35
1.08
1.46
1.32
1.88
1.35
1.82
1.35
1.82
0.937
0.880
HSS3 3 3/16
HSS3 3 3/8
1.89
3.39
0.174
0.349
1.64
2.52
1.97
3.25
2.46
3.78
2.46
3.78
1.14
1.06
HSS3 3 3/16
HSS3 3 3/8
2.24
4.09
0.174
0.349
2.31
3.71
2.76
4.69
4.05
6.49
4.05
6.49
1.35
1.26
HSS4 3 3/16
HSS4 3 3/8
2.24
4.09
0.174
0.349
2.47
3.97
3.00
5.12
4.93
7.93
3.16
5.01
1.19
1.11
HSS4 4 1/4
HSS4 4 1/2
3.37
6.02
0.233
0.465
3.90
5.97
4.69
7.70
7.80
11.9
7.80
11.9
1.52
1.41
HSS6 4 1/4
HSS6 4 1/2
4.30
7.88
0.233
0.465
6.96
11.3
8.53
14.6
20.9
34.0
11.1
17.8
1.61
1.50
HSS6 6 1/4
HSS6 6 5/8
5.24
11.7
0.233
0.581
9.54
18.4
11.2
23.2
28.6
55.2
28.6
55.2
2.34
2.17
HSS8 4 1/4
HSS8 4 5/8
5.24
11.7
0.233
0.581
10.6
20.5
13.3
27.4
42.5
82.0
14.4
26.6
1.66
1.51
HSS8 8 1/42
HSS8 8 5/8
7.10
16.4
0.233
0.581
17.7
36.5
20.5
44.7
70.7
146
70.7
146
3.15
2.99
HSS12 4 1/4
HSS12 4 5/8
7.10
16.4
0.233
0.581
19.9
40.8
25.6
55.5
119
245
21.0
40.4
1.72
1.57
HSS12 8 1/42
HSS12 8 5/8
8.96
21.0
0.233
0.581
30.6
66.1
36.6
82.1
184
397
98.8
210
3.32
3.16
HSS12 12 1/42
HSS12 12 5/8
10.8
25.7
0.233
0.581
41.4
91.4
47.6
109
248
548
248
548
4.79
4.62
HSS16 4 5/16
HSS16 4 5/8
11.1
21.0
0.291
0.581
38.5
67.3
51.1
92.9
308
539
33.2
54.1
1.73
1.60
HSS16 8 5/16
HSS16 8 5/8
13.4
25.7
0.291
0.581
56.4
102
69.4
129
451
815
155
274
3.40
3.27
HSS16 12 5/162
HSS16 12 5/8
15.7
30.3
0.291
0.581
74.4
136
87.7
165
595
1090
384
700
4.94
4.80
HSS16 16 3/8
HSS16 16 5/8
21.5
35.0
0.349
0.581
109
171
126
200
873
1370
873
1370
6.37
6.25
HSS20 4 3/8
HSS20 4 1/2
16.0
20.9
0.349
0.465
65.7
83.8
89.3
115
657
838
47.6
58.7
1.73
1.68
HSS20 8 3/8
HSS20 8 5/8
18.7
30.3
0.349
0.581
92.6
144
117
185
926
1440
222
338
3.44
3.34
HSS20 12 3/82
HSS20 12 5/8
21.5
35.0
0.349
0.581
120
188
144
230
1200
1880
547
851
5.04
4.93

Notes:

1. The nominal wall thickness, t, in the designation for an HSS shape (for example, in. or in.) is different from the "design wall thickness," t, which is tabulated for each section and which is permitted to be smaller than the nominal value.

2. Section is not compact, based on flange slenderness: use reduced nominal bending strength, Mn, as follows:

    equation


Table A-4.7: Dimensions and properties of selected steel round hollow structural sections (HSS)

HSS dimensions and properties
Designation A (in2) Design wall thickness, t (in.)1 I (in4) r (in.)
HSS1.660 0.1400.6250.1300.1840.543
HSS1.990 0.120
HSS1.990 0.188
0.624
0.943
0.111
0.174
0.251
0.355
0.634
0.613
HSS2.375 0.125
HSS2.375 0.250
0.823
1.57
0.116
0.233
0.527
0.910
0.800
0.762
HSS2.500 0.125
HSS2.500 0.250
0.869
1.66
0.116
0.233
0.619
1.08
0.844
0.806
HSS3.000 0.125
HSS3.000 0.250
1.05
2.03
0.116
0.233
1.09
1.95
1.02
0.982
HSS3.500 0.125
HSS3.500 0.313
1.23
2.93
0.116
0.291
1.77
3.81
1.20
1.14
HSS4.000 0.125
HSS4.000 0.313
1.42
3.39
0.116
0.291
2.67
5.87
1.37
1.32
HSS6.000 0.250
HSS6.000 0.500
4.22
8.09
0.233
0.465
17.6
31.2
2.04
1.96
HSS8.625 0.250
HSS8.625 0.625
6.14
14.7
0.233
0.581
54.1
119
2.97
2.85
HSS10.000 0.250
HSS10.000 0.625
7.15
17.2
0.233
0.581
85.3
191
3.45
3.34
HSS12.750 0.375
HSS12.750 0.500
13.6
17.9
0.349
0.465
262
339
4.39
4.35
HSS14.000 0.375
HSS14.000 0.625
15.0
24.5
0.349
0.581
349
552
4.83
4.75
HSS16.000 0.375
HSS16.000 0.625
17.2
28.1
0.349
0.581
526
838
5.53
5.46
HSS18.000 0.50025.60.4659856.20
HSS20.000 0.50028.50.46513606.91

Note:

1. The nominal wall thickness, t, in the designation for an HSS shape (e.g., 0.500 in. or 0.250 in.) is different from the "design wall thickness," t, which is tabulated for each section and which is permitted to be smaller than the nominal value.


Table A-4.8: Dimensions and properties of selected steel pipe

Steel pipe dimensions and properties
Designation A (in2) Design wall thickness, t (in.)1 Diameter (in.) I (in4) r (in.)
Standard weight steel pipe
Pipe 2 Std.1.020.143 2.380.6270.791
Pipe 2 Std.1.610.1892.881.450.952
Pipe 3 Std.2.070.201 3.502.851.17
Pipe 3 Std.2.500.2114.004.521.34
Pipe 4 Std.2.960.2214.506.821.51
Pipe 5 Std.4.010.2415.5614.31.88
Pipe 6 Std.5.200.2616.6326.52.25
Pipe 8 Std.7.850.3008.6368.12.95
Pipe 10 Std.11.50.34010.8 1513.68
Pipe 12 Std.13.70.34912.82624.39
Extra strong steel pipe
Pipe 2 x-Strong1.400.204 2.380.8270.771
Pipe 2 x-Strong2.100.2572.88 1.830.930
Pipe 3 x-Strong2.830.2803.503.701.14
Pipe 3 x-Strong3.430.2964.005.941.31
Pipe 4 x-Strong4.140.3154.509.121.48
Pipe 5 x-Strong5.730.3495.5619.51.85
Pipe 6 x-Strong7.830.4036.6338.32.20
Pipe 8 x-Strong11.90.4658.63100 2.89
Pipe 10 x-Strong15.10.46510.8 199 3.64
Pipe 12 x-Strong17.50.46512.8339 4.35
Double-extra strong steel pipe
Pipe 2 xx-Strong2.510.4062.381.270.711
Pipe 2 xx-Strong3.830.5142.882.780.854
Pipe 3 xx-Strong5.170.5593.505.791.06
Pipe 4 xx-Strong7.660.6284.5014.71.39
Pipe 5 xx-Strong10.70.6995.5632.21.74
Pipe 6 xx-Strong14.70.8056.6363.52.08
Pipe 8 xx-Strong20.00.8168.631542.78


Table A-4.9: Shear lag coefficient, U, for bolted and welded steel connections in tension1

ConditionShear lag coefficient, UDiagram
All parts of the element (e.g., web, flanges, legs) are connected by bolts or welds. U = 1.0 shear lag diagram
Transverse welds connecting some, but not all, of the cross-sectional "parts." U = 1.0, but the net area, An, is taken as only that portion of the element cross section (consisting of flanges, webs, legs, and so on) that is directly connected by the transverse welds. shear lag diagram
Longitudinal welds connecting steel plates or other shapes. equation
 
where l = (l1 + l2)/2 and l1 and l2 are at least 4 times the weld size; and x is the distance measured from the connection plane to the centroid of the member.
shear lag diagram
Bolts connecting wide-flange (W) shapes; or M, S, HP shapes; or Tees made from any of those sections. U = 0.90 where bf ≥ 0.67d and flange is connected with at least 3 bolts per line.
U = 0.85 where bf < 0.67d and flange is connected with at least 3 bolts per line.
U = 0.70 where only the web is connected with at least 4 bolts per line.
shear lag diagram
Bolts connecting single and double angles (L). U = 0.80 where one leg of the angle is connected with at least 4 bolts per line.
U = 0.60 where one leg of the angle is connected with 3 bolts per line. (See note 1 for angles connected with less than 3 bolts per line.)
shear lag diagram

Note:

1. The shear lag coefficient, U, for all tension members except plates and HSS, can be taken as U = 1 – x /l, where x is the distance measured from the connection plane to the centroid of the member and U is the length of the connection, measured either along the weld or measured from the first to the last bolt, in either case parallel to the direction of the tension force. For wide-flange shapes bolted through the flanges, the centroid is taken for half of the cross section, i.e., for the "tee" (WT shape), rather than for the whole W shape. Alternatively, the values for U listed in this table can be used in lieu of this equation.


Table A-4.10: Allowable axial loads1,2,3 (kips), A992 steel wide-flange columns (Fy = 50 ksi)

Designa-
tion
Effective length, KL (ft)
10121416182022242628303234363840
W4 1339272015
12
9
8
6
5
5
4
3
3
3
2
2
W5 16
W5 19
72
87
54
65
39
48
30
37
24
29
19
23
16
19
13
16
11
14
9
12
8
10
7
9
6
8
6
7
5
6
4
5
W6 9
W6 12
W6 16
W6 15
W6 20
W6 25
22
31
46
80
110
139
15
21
32
64
89
114
11
15
23
49
70
89
8
12
18
37
53
69
7
9
14
29
42
54
5
7
11
24
34
44
4
6
9
20
28
36
3
5
8
16
23
30
3
4
6
14
20
26
2
3
5
12
17
22
2
3
5
10
15
19
2
3
4
9
13
17
1
2
4
8
11
15
1
2
3
7
10
13
1
2
3
6
9
12
1
1
2
6
8
11
W8 13
W8 15
W8 18
W8 21
W8 24
W8 28
W8 31
W8 35
W8 40
W8 48
W8 58
W8 67
28
35
78
95
141
165
211
238
271
330
403
466
19
24
57
70
118
138
188
213
243
297
363
420
14
18
42
52
95
112
164
186
213
262
320
372
11
13
32
39
74
88
141
160
183
226
277
323
8
10
25
31
59
69
118
134
154
191
236
276
7
8
20
25
47
56
97
110
127
159
196
230
5
7
17
21
39
46
80
91
104
131
162
190
4
6
14
17
33
39
67
76
88
110
136
160
4
5
12
15
28
33
57
65
75
94
116
136
3
4
10
13
24
28
49
56
64
81
100
117
3
3
9
11
21
25
43
49
56
70
87
102
2
3
8
9
18
22
37
43
49
62
76
90
2
3
7
8
16
19
33
38
43
55
68
79
2
2
6
7
14
17
29
34
39
49
60
71
1
2
5
7
13
15
26
30
35
44
54
63
1
2
5
6
11
14
24
27
31
39
49
57
W10 15
W10 19
W10 26
W10 30
W10 33
W10 39
W10 45
W10 49
W10 54
W10 60
W10 68
W10 77
W10 88
W10 100
W10 112
30
44
128
151
219
263
306
366
402
451
509
581
668
755
850
20
31
100
118
194
233
273
340
375
421
475
543
625
706
797
15
22
74
88
168
203
238
313
345
387
438
500
577
653
739
11
17
57
67
142
173
204
283
313
352
398
456
527
597
676
9
13
45
53
117
144
171
254
281
316
358
410
475
539
612
7
11
36
43
95
117
140
224
248
280
318
364
423
481
548
6
9
30
35
78
97
115
195
217
244
278
319
372
424
484
5
7
25
30
66
81
97
168
187
211
241
277
323
369
423
4
6
21
25
56
69
82
143
159
180
206
236
277
317
364
3
5
18
22
48
60
71
123
137
155
177
204
239
273
314
3
4
16
19
42
52
62
107
120
135
154
177
208
238
273
2
4
14
16
37
45
54
94
105
119
136
156
183
209
240
2
3
12
14
32
40
48
83
93
105
120
138
162
185
213
2
3
11
13
29
36
43
74
83
94<
107
123
144
165
190
2
3
10
11
26
32
38
67
74
84
96
110
129
148
170
1
2
9
10
23
29
35
60
67
76
87
100
117
134
154
Designa-
tion
Effective length, KL (ft)
10121416182022242628303234363840
W12 40
W12 45
W12 50
W12 53
W12 58
W12 65
W12 72
W12 79
W12 87
W12 96
W12 106
W12 120
W12 136
W12 152
W12 170
W12 190
W12 210
W12 230
W12 252
W12 279
W12 305
W12 336
264
297
332
393
430
509
563
620
685
756
837
946
1075
1206
1352
1517
1677
1841
2018
2236
2448
2713
234
263
294
365
400
484
536
590
652
720
798
902
1026
1153
1293
1452
1607
1764
1936
2147
2353
2610
202
227
255
333
366
456
505
556
615
680
754
853
971
1092
1226
1379
1527
1678
1843
2046
2246
2494
171
193
216
301
331
425
471
519
575
636
706
800
912
1026
1154
1299
1440
1584
1742
1936
2128
2367
141
159
179
268
296
393
436
481
533
590
656
743
848
957
1077
1213
1347
1484
1634
1819
2001
2230
114
129
146
235
260
360
400
441
490
543
604
685
783
884
997
1125
1250
1380
1520
1696
1869
2087
94
107
120
203
226
327
363
401
446
495
551
626
717
811
915
1034
1152
1273
1405
1569
1733
1939
79
90
101
173
194
294
327
361
402
447
498
567
650
737
834
944
1052
1165
1288
1442
1595
1789
67
76
86
148
165
262
292
323
360
400
447
509
585
664
753
854
954
1058
1172
1315
1458
1639
58
66
74
127
142
231
258
286
319
355
397
453
522
594
675
767
859
954
1058
1190
1323
1491
51
57
65
111
124
201
226
250
279
312
349
399
461
527
600
683
766
853
948
1069
1191
1347
44
50
57
97
109
177
198
219
245
274
307
351
406
463
528
602
677
755
842
953
1065
1209
39
44
50
86
96
157
176
194
217
243
272
311
359
410
467
533
600
669
746
844
944
1074
35
40
45
77
86
140
157
173
194
216
242
277
320
366
417
476
535
597
665
753
842
958
31
35
40
69
77
125
140
155
174
194
218
249
287
328
374
427
480
536
597
676
756
860
28
32
36
62
69
113
127
140
157
175
196
224
259
296
338
385
433
483
539
610
682
776
Designa-
tion
Effective length, KL (ft)
10121416182022242628303234363840
W14 433
W14 48
W14 53
W14 61
W14 68
W14 74
W14 82
W14 90
W14 99
W14 109
W14 120
W14 132
W14 145
W14 159
W14 176
W14 193
W14 211
W14 233
W14 257
W14 283
W14 311
W14 342
W14 370
W14 398
W14 426
W14 455
W14 500
W14 550
W14 605
W14 665
W14 730
W14 808
W14 873
281
316
351
449
503
550
605
734
807
888
980
1078
1196
1309
1453
1594
1741
1926
2127
2347
2577
2851
3080
3309
3539
3797
4171
4603
5065
5585
6136
6811
7364
247
278
309
416
466
510
561
710
780
859
948
1043
1161
1271
1412
1550
1693
1874
2070
2285
2511
2779
3003
3228
3453
3707
4073
4498
4952
5465
6008
6677
7223
212
239
266
380
425
466
513
682
749
826
911
1003
1122
1229
1364
1499
1638
1813
2005
2214
2434
2696
2914
3134
3354
3602
3961
4378
4823
5327
5860
6522
7060
177
201
224
342
383
421
463
651
716
789
871
960
1078
1181
1312
1442
1577
1747
1932
2135
2348
2602
2814
3029
3243
3486
3836
4243
4678
5172
5694
6348
6877
145
165
185
303
340
374
412
618
680
749
828
912
1030
1129
1255
1381
1510
1674
1853
2049
2255
2501
2706
2915
3122
3358
3698
4095
4519
5001
5512
6156
6675
117
134
150
265
298
329
362
583
641
707
782
862
979
1074
1195
1315
1439
1596
1768
1957
2155
2392
2590
2792
2992
3221
3551
3935
4348
4817
5315
5948
6456
97
110
123
229
257
285
313
546
601
664
734
810
926
1016
1131
1246
1364
1514
1678
1860
2049
2277
2467
2662
2855
3076
3394
3766
4166
4621
5105
5727
6223
82
93
104
194
219
242
267
509
560
619
685
756
871
957
1065
1174
1287
1429
1586
1759
1940
2158
2340
2527
2712
2924
3231
3590
3976
4416
4885
5494
5977
70
79
88
165
186
206
227
471
519
574
635
702
815
896
998
1101
1207
1342
1491
1656
1827
2035
2208
2388
2564
2768
3062
3407
3778
4204
4657
5252
5720
60
68
76
143
161
178
196
434
478
529
585
647
759
834
930
1028
1127
1255
1395
1551
1713
1910
2075
2246
2414
2609
2889
3220
3576
3986
4422
5002
5456
52
59
66
124
140
155
171
397
437
484
536
594
702
773
862
954
1047
1167
1298
1446
1599
1785
1940
2103
2262
2448
2715
3031
3371
3764
4184
4747
5185
52
58
109
123
136
150
360
398
441
488
541
647
712
795
881
968
1079
1202
1341
1485
1660
1806
1960
2111
2287
2540
2841
3165
3541
3942
4488
4910
46
51
96
109
121
133
326
359
399
442
491
592
653
730
809
890
994
1108
1238
1372
1536
1674
1819
1961
2127
2367
2651
2960
3317
3701
4229
4634
41
46
86
97
107
118
292
322
358
397
441
540
595
666
740
814
910
1017
1137
1262
1415
1544
1680
1813
1969
2195
2464
2756
3096
3461
3970
4358
37
41
77
87
96
106
262
289
321
356
396
488
539
604
673
741
830
928
1040
1155
1298
1417
1545
1669
1816
2028
2281
2557
2878
3224
3713
4084
33
37
70
78
87
96
236
261
290
322
357
441
487
545
607
669
750
841
944
1051
1184
1295
1414
1530
1667
1865
2103
2361
2665
2992
3461
3814

Notes:

1. Slenderness ratio, KL/r > 200, for table cells shown with light tone: such slender columns are permitted but not recommended.

2. Interpolation can be used to find approximate values for allowable axial loads for effective lengths not shown in the table (i.e., for odd numbers between 10 ft and 40 ft).

3. Section is "slender" for compression; values have been appropriately lowered.


Table A-4.11: Allowable stresses for A992 steel columns (Fy = 50 ksi)

KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
1
29.9
41
26.5
81
18.5
121
10.3
161
5.80
2
29.9
42
26.3
82
18.3
122
10.1
162
5.73
3
29.9
43
26.2
83
18.1
123
9.93
163
5.66
4
29.9
44
26.0
84
17.9
124
9.77
164
5.59
5
29.9
45
25.8
85
17.7
125
9.62
165
5.52
6
29.9
46
25.6
86
17.4
126
9.46
166
5.45
7
29.8
47
25.5
87
17.2
127
9.32
167
5.39
8
29.8
48
25.3
88
17.0
128
9.17
168
5.32
9
29.8
49
25.1
89
16.8
129
9.03
169
5.26
10
29.7
50
24.9
90
16.6
130
8.89
170
5.20
11
29.7
51
24.8
91
16.3
131
8.76
171
5.14
12
29.6
52
24.6
92
16.1
132
8.62
172
5.08
13
29.6
53
24.4
93
15.9
133
8.49
173
5.02
14
29.5
54
24.2
94
15.7
134
8.37
174
4.96
15
29.5
55
24.0
95
15.5
135
8.24
175
4.91
16
29.4
56
23.8
96
15.3
136
8.12
176
4.85
17
29.3
57
23.6
97
15.0
137
8.01
177
4.80
18
29.2
58
23.4
98
14.8
138
7.89
178
4.74
19
29.2
59
23.2
99
14.6
139
7.78
179
4.69
20
29.1
60
23.0
100
14.4
140
7.67
180
4.64
21
29.0
61
22.8
101
14.2
141
7.56
181
4.59
22
28.9
62
22.6
102
14.0
142
7.45
182
4.54
23
28.8
63
22.4
103
13.8
143
7.35
183
4.49
24
28.7
64
22.2
104
13.6
144
7.25
184
4.44
25
28.6
65
22.0
105
13.4
145
7.15
185
4.39
26
28.5
66
21.8
106
13.2
146
7.05
186
4.34
27
28.4
67
21.6
107
13.0
147
6.95
186
4.34
28
28.3
68
21.4
108
12.8
148
6.86
188
4.25
29
28.2
69
21.1
109
12.6
149
6.77
189
4.21
30
28.0
70
20.9
110
12.4
150
6.68
190
4.16
31
27.9
71
20.7
111
12.2
151
6.59
191
4.12
32
27.8
72
20.5
112
12.0
152
6.50
192
4.08
33
27.6
73
20.3
113
11.8
153
6.42
193
4.03
34
27.5
74
20.1
114
11.6
154
6.34
194
3.99
35
27.4
75
19.8
115
11.4
155
6.25
195
3.95
36
27.2
76
19.6
116
11.2
156
6.17
196
3.91
37
27.1
77
19.4
117
11.0
157
6.10
197
3.87
38
26.9
78
19.2
118
10.8
158
6.02
198
3.83
39
26.8
79
19.0
119
10.6
159
5.94
199
3.79
40
26.6
80
18.8
120
10.4
160
5.87
200
3.76


Table A-4.12: Allowable stresses for A500 Grade B HSS rectangular columns (Fy = 46 ksi)

KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
1
27.5
41
24.6
81
17.7
121
10.3
161
5.80
2
27.5
42
24.5
82
17.5
122
10.1
162
5.73
3
27.5
43
24.3
83
17.3
123
9.93
163
5.66
4
27.5
44
24.2
84
17.1
124
9.77
164
5.59
5
27.5
45
24.0
85
16.9
125
9.62
165
5.52
6
27.5
46
23.9
86
16.7
126
9.46
166
5.45
7
27.5
47
23.7
87
16.6
127
9.32
167
5.39
8
27.4
48
23.6
88
16.4
128
9.17
168
5.32
9
27.4
49
23.4
89
16.2
129
9.03
169
5.26
10
27.4
50
23.3
90
16.0
130
8.89
170
5.20
11
27.3
51
23.1
91
15.8
131
8.76
171
5.14
12
27.3
52
23.0
92
15.6
132
8.62
172
5.08
13
27.2
53
22.8
93
15.4
133
8.49
173
5.02
14
27.2
54
22.6
94
15.2
134
8.37
174
4.96
15
27.1
55
22.5
95
15.0
135
8.24
175
4.91
16
27.1
56
22.3
96
14.8
136
8.12
176
4.85
17
27.0
57
22.1
97
14.6
137
8.01
177
4.80
18
27.0
58
22.0
98
14.4
138
7.89
178
4.74
19
26.9
59
21.8
99
14.2
139
7.78
179
4.69
20
26.8
60
21.6
100
14.1
140
7.67
180
4.64
21
26.7
61
21.4
101
13.9
141
7.56
181
4.59
22
26.7
62
21.3
102
13.7
142
7.45
182
4.54
23
26.6
63
21.1
103
13.5
143
7.35
183
4.49
24
26.5
64
20.9
104
13.3
144
7.25
184
4.44
25
26.4
65
20.7
105
13.1
145
7.15
185
4.39
26
26.3
66
20.5
106
12.9
146
7.05
186
4.34
27
26.2
67
20.4
107
12.8
147
6.95
186
4.34
28
26.1
68
20.2
108
12.6
148
6.86
188
4.25
29
26.0
69
20.0
109
12.4
149
6.77
189
4.21
30
25.9
70
19.8
110
12.2
150
6.68
190
4.16
31
25.8
71
19.6
111
12.0
151
6.59
191
4.12
32
25.7
72
19.4
112
11.8
152
6.50
192
4.08
33
25.6
73
19.2
113
11.7
153
6.42
193
4.03
34
25.5
74
19.1
114
11.5
154
6.34
194
3.99
35
25.4
75
18.9
115
11.3
155
6.25
195
3.95
36
25.2
76
18.7
116
11.1
156
6.17
196
3.91
37
25.1
77
18.5
117
11.0
157
6.10
197
3.87
38
25.0
78
18.3
118
10.8
158
6.02
198
3.83
39
24.9
79
18.1
119
10.6
159
5.94
199
3.79
40
24.7
80
17.9
120
10.4
160
5.87
200
3.76


Table A-4.13: Allowable stresses for A500 Grade B HSS round columns (Fy = 42 ksi)

KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
1
25.1
41
22.7
81
16.8
121
10.2
161
5.80
2
25.1
42
22.6
82
16.6
122
10.1
162
5.73
3
25.1
43
22.4
83
16.5
123
9.93
163
5.66
4
25.1
44
22.3
84
16.3
124
9.77
164
5.59
5
25.1
45
22.2
85
16.1
125
9.62
165
5.52
6
25.1
46
22.1
86
16.0
126
9.46
166
5.45
7
25.1
47
22.0
87
15.8
127
9.32
167
5.39
8
25.1
48
21.8
88
15.6
128
9.17
168
5.32
9
25.0
49
21.7
89
15.5
129
9.03
169
5.26
10
25.0
50
21.6
90
15.3
130
8.89
170
5.20
11
25.0
51
21.4
91
15.1
131
8.76
171
5.14
12
24.9
52
21.3
92
15.0
132
8.62
172
5.08
13
24.9
53
21.2
93
14.8
133
8.49
173
5.02
14
24.8
54
21.0
94
14.6
134
8.37
174
4.96
15
24.8
55
20.9
95
14.4
135
8.24
175
4.91
16
24.8
56
20.7
96
14.3
136
8.12
176
4.85
17
24.7
57
20.6
97
14.1
137
8.01
177
4.80
18
24.7
58
20.5
98
13.9
138
7.89
178
4.74
19
24.6
59
20.3
99
13.8
139
7.78
179
4.69
20
24.5
60
20.2
100
13.6
140
7.67
180
4.64
21
24.5
61
20.0
101
13.4
141
7.56
181
4.59
22
24.4
62
19.9
102
13.3
142
7.45
182
4.54
23
24.3
63
19.7
103
13.1
143
7.35
183
4.49
24
24.3
64
19.6
104
12.9
144
7.25
184
4.44
25
24.2
65
19.4
105
12.8
145
7.15
185
4.39
26
24.1
66
19.2
106
12.6
146
7.05
186
4.34
27
24.0
67
19.1
107
12.4
147
6.95
186
4.34
28
24.0
68
18.9
108
12.3
148
6.86
188
4.25
29
23.9
69
18.8
109
12.1
149
6.77
189
4.21
30
23.8
70
18.6
110
12.0
150
6.68
190
4.16
31
23.7
71
18.5
111
11.8
151
6.59
191
4.12
32
23.6
72
18.3
112
11.6
152
6.50
192
4.08
33
23.5
73
18.1
113
11.5
153
6.42
193
4.03
34
23.4
74
18.0
114
11.3
154
6.34
194
3.99
35
23.3
75
17.8
115
11.2
155
6.25
195
3.95
36
23.2
76
17.6
116
11.0
156
6.17
196
3.91
37
23.1
77
17.5
117
10.8
157
6.10
197
3.87
38
23.0
78
17.3
118
10.7
158
6.02
198
3.83
39
22.9
79
17.1
119
10.5
159
5.94
199
3.79
40
22.8
80
17.0
120
10.4
160
5.87
200
3.76


Table A-4.14: Allowable stresses for A361 steel columns (Fy = 36 ksi)

KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
KL/r
Fc
1
21.6
41
19.7
81
15.3
121
10.0
161
5.80
2
21.6
42
19.6
82
15.1
122
9.85
162
5.73
3
21.5
43
19.6
83
15.0
123
9.72
163
5.66
4
21.5
44
19.5
84
14.9
124
9.59
164
5.59
5
21.5
45
19.4
85
14.7
125
9.47
165
5.52
6
21.5
46
19.3
86
14.6
126
9.35
166
5.45
7
21.5
47
19.2
87
14.5
127
9.22
167
5.39
8
21.5
48
19.1
88
14.3
128
9.10
168
5.32
9
21.5
49
19.0
89
14.2
129
8.98
169
5.26
10
21.4
50
18.9
90
14.1
130
8.86
170
5.20
11
21.4
51
18.8
91
13.9
131
8.73
171
5.14
12
21.4
52
18.7
92
13.8
132
8.61
172
5.08
13
21.4
53
18.6
93
13.7
133
8.49
173
5.02
14
21.3
54
18.5
94
13.5
134
8.37
174
4.96
15
21.3
55
18.4
95
13.4
135
8.24
175
4.91
16
21.3
56
18.3
96
13.3
136
8.12
176
4.85
17
21.2
57
18.2
97
13.1
137
8.01
177
4.80
18
21.2
58
18.1
98
13.0
138
7.89
178
4.74
19
21.2
59
17.9
99
12.9
139
7.78
179
4.69
20
21.1
60
17.8
100
12.7
140
7.67
180
4.64
21
21.1
61
17.7
101
12.6
141
7.56
181
4.59
22
21.0
62
17.6
102
12.5
142
7.45
182
4.54
23
21.0
63
17.5
103
12.3
143
7.35
183
4.49
24
20.9
64
17.4
104
12.2
144
7.25
184
4.44
25
20.9
65
17.3
105
12.1
145
7.15
185
4.39
26
20.8
66
17.1
106
11.9
146
7.05
186
4.34
27
20.7
67
17.0
107
11.8
147
6.95
186
4.34
28
20.7
68
16.9
108
11.7
148
6.86
188
4.25
29
20.6
69
16.8
109
11.5
149
6.77
189
4.21
30
20.6
70
16.7
110
11.4
150
6.68
190
4.16
31
20.5
71
16.5
111
11.3
151
6.59
191
4.12
32
20.4
72
16.4
112
11.1
152
6.50
192
4.08
33
20.4
73
16.3
113
11.0
153
6.42
193
4.03
34
20.3
74
16.2
114
10.9
154
6.34
194
3.99
35
20.2
75
16.0
115
10.7
155
6.25
195
3.95
36
20.1
76
15.9
116
10.6
156
6.17
196
3.91
37
20.1
77
15.8
117
10.5
157
6.10
197
3.87
38
20.0
78
15.6
118
10.4
158
6.02
198
3.83
39
19.9
79
15.5
119
10.2
159
5.94
199
3.79
40
19.8
80
15.4
120
10.1
160
5.87
200
3.76

Note:

1. Steel pipe fabricated with A53 Grade B steel and Fy = 35 ksi may be analyzed using this table for Fy = 36 ksi.


Table A-4.15: Plastic section modulus (Zx) values: lightest laterally braced steel compact shapes for bending,
Fy = 50 ksi

Shape
Zx (in3)
2Lp (ft)
Shape
Zx (in3)
2Lp (ft)
Shape
Zx (in3)
2Lp (ft)
W6 8.51
5.59
3.14
W21 55
126
6.11
W40 211
906
8.87
W6 91
6.23
3.20
W24 55
134
4.73
W40 215
964
12.5
W8 101
8.77
3.14
W21 62
144
6.25
W44 230
1100
12.1
W10 121
12.5
2.87
W24 62
153
4.87
W40 249
1120
12.5
W12 14
17.4
2.66
W21 68
160
6.36
W44 262
1270
12.3
W12 16
20.1
2.73
W24 68
177
6.61
W44 290
1410
12.3
W10 19
21.6
3.09
W24 76
200
6.78
W40 324
1460
12.6
W12 19
24.7
2.90
W24 84
224
6.89
W44 335
1620
12.3
W10 22
26.0
4.70
W27 84
244
7.31
W40 362
1640
12.7
W12 22
29.3
3.00
W30 90
283
7.38
W40 372
1680
12.7
W14 22
33.2
3.67
W30 99
312
7.42
W40 392
1710
9.33
W12 26
37.2
5.33
W30 108
346
7.59
W40 397
1800
12.9
W14 26
40.2
3.81
W30 116
378
7.74
W40 431
1960
12.9
W16 26
44.2
3.96
W33 118
415
8.19
W36 487
2130
14.0
W14 30
47.3
5.26
W33 130
467
8.44
W40 503
2320
13.1
W16 31
54.0
4.13
W36 135
509
8.41
W36 529
2330
14.1
W14 34
54.6
5.40
W33 141
514
8.58
W40 593
2760
13.4
W18 35
66.5
4.31
W40 149
598
8.09
W36 652
2910
14.5
W16 40
73.0
5.55
W36 160
624
8.83
W36 655
3080
13.6
W18 40
78.4
4.49
W40 167
693
8.48
W36 723
3270
14.7
W21 44
95.4
4.45
W36 182
718
9.01
W36 802
3660
14.9
W21 48
107
6.09
W40 183
774
8.80
W36 853
3920
15.1
W21 50
110
4.59
W40 199
869
12.2
W36 925
4130
15.0
W18 55
112
5.90
 

Notes:

1. Section is just out of range to qualify as compact for Fy = 50 ksi steel. Because the nominal flexural strength of the section must be reduced a small percentage to account for slenderness of the noncompact flanges, the value for plastic section modulus has been reduced by the same percentage, so that it may be used, as is, in the bending strength equation: Zreq = ΩMmax/Fy.

2. Lp, the largest unbraced length for which the section can be considered compact, is computed for Fy = 50 ksi steel. The comparable unbraced length for A36 steel is larger, and is equal to 4.16ry (ft), where ry is the section's radius of gyration about the y-axis (in.) — see Appendix Table A-4.3.


Table A-4.16: Available moment for A992 wide-flange (W) shapes1,2

A. Available moments from 0 to 100 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
B. Available moments from 100 to 200 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
C. Available moments from 200 to 400 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
D. Available moments from 400 to 600 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
E. Available moments from 600 to 1000 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
F. Available moments from 1000 to 2000 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
G. Available moments from 2000 to 5000 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes
H. Available moments from 5000 to 8000 ft-kips
graph showing available moments for wide-flange shapes

Notes:

1. Values are based on the conservative assumption that the "lateral-torsional buckling modifier," Cb = 1.0. This conservative value of Cb = 1.0 is quite close to the actual value for simply-supported beams with equally spaced point loads of equal weight, where the beam is braced at those points only, except for the special case of a single point load at midspan, in which case Cb = 1.364. Actual values for Cb can be found for each unbraced beam segment by calculating the bending moments at the quarter-points along each segment (MA, MB, and MC, with MB being the moment at the midpoint of the segment), as well as the maximum moment, Mmax, within each segment, and then inserting these values into Equation 4.13, reproduced as follows:

     equation

In any case, the available moment cannot exceed Mp / Ω, the value for braced, compact sections given in Appendix Table A-4.15.

2. Solid circles represent the maximum unbraced length, Lp, for which a plastic moment can be achieved before the onset of lateral-torsional buckling; open circles represent the maximum unbraced length, Lr, for which an elastic moment can be achieved before the onset of lateral-torsional buckling (see Figure 4.24).


Table A-4.17: Maximum (actual) deflection in a beam1,2,3

Deflection coefficient, C, for maximum (actual) deflection, Δ (in.), where Δ =
equation
 equationequationequationequation
equation22.469.334.49216
equation35.9416.078.99n/a
equation61.3426.2713.31n/a
equation85.5436.1217.97n/a
equationn/an/an/a576

Notes:

1. Beam diagram symbols in top row of tables represent the following conditions (from left to right): simply-supported; one end pinned and one end continuous; both ends continuous; and cantilever.

2. Units for the maximum (actual) deflection equation are as follows:

  Δ = maximum (actual) deflection (in.)

  C = deflection coefficient

  L = span (in.): The quantity (L /12) that appears in the deflection equation is therefore the span in feet

  E = modulus of elasticity (psi when load is in lb; or ksi when load is in kips)

  Ix = moment of inertia about axis of bending (in4)

  P = concentrated load or resultant of uniformly-distributed load (lb or kips)

  w = uniformly-distributed load (lb/ft or kips/ft)

3. Allowable deflections (from Appendix Table A-1.3) are as follows:

  For live load only (or snow or wind only), the typical basic floor beam limit is L/360 while typical roof beam limits are L/180, L/240, or L/360 (for no ceiling, nonplaster ceiling, or plaster ceiling respectively).

  For total loads (combined live and dead), the typical basic floor beam limit is L/240 while typical roof beam limits are L/120, L/180, or L/240 (for no ceiling, nonplaster ceiling, or plaster ceiling respectively).


Table A-4.18: Shear capacity, or available strength, for a high-strength bolt subjected to single shear with threads excluded from shear plane (kips)

A. Bearing-type connections1
Bolt typeNominal bolt diameter (in.)
¾11⅛1⅜
Group A (A325)10.415.020.426.733.841.850.360.2
Group B (A490)12.918.625.233.041.751.762.274.3
Group C (F3043)44.456.269.5
B. Slip-critical connections (based on strength rather than serviceability)2
Bolt typeNominal bolt diameter (in.)
¾11⅛1⅜
Group A (A325)4.296.338.8111.512.716.019.223.3
Group B (A490)5.427.9111.114.518.123.127.333.4
Group C (F3043)20.325.532.3

Notes:

1. Capacities are tabulated for single-shear connections, with bolt threads excluded from all shear planes (condition X). For double-shear, multiply values by 2; for threads included within shear planes (condition N), multiply values by 0.8. For double-shear and threads included, multiply by 2 0.8 = 1.6.

2. Slip-critical capacities are based on standard holes and single-shear. For double shear, multiply values by 2. Slip-critical bolts must also satisfy bearing capacity values in Appendix Table A-4.19.


Table A-4.19: Bearing capacity, or available strength, for a high-strength bolt bearing on material 1 in. thick, with clear spacing between bolts (or edge) ≥ 2 in. (kips)1

Material being connectedNominal bolt diameter (in.)
¾11⅛1⅜
A36, Fu = 58 ksi54.465.376.187.097.9109120131
A992, Fu = 65 ksi60.973.185.397.5110122134146

Note:

1. Capacity (available strength) is tabulated assuming that the bolt hole clear spacing (or clear spacing between bolt hole and material edge) in direction of force is no less than 2 in. For clear spacing less than 2 in., multiply capacity by Lc/ 2, where Lc is the actual clear spacing (in.). For cases where the small deformations associated with bolt bearing, at ordinary service loads, are considered to be a design issue, multiply capacity by 0.8. Where the thickness, t, of the material is other than 1 in., multiply the capacity by the thickness, t (in.). These multiplications are cumulative so that, for example, the capacity of a material with t = ⅝ in., clear spacing between bolts of 1.75 in., and consideration of bearing deformations, would be equal to the tabular value multiplied by (⅝)(1.75/2)(0.8) = (tabular value 0.4375).


Table A-4.20: Minimum and maximum spacing and edge distance measured from bolt centerline for standard holes

A. Minimum bolt spacing (in.)
 Nominal bolt diameter (in.)
¾11⅛1⅜
Suggested1⅞2⅝33⅜4⅛
Required1⅔22⅓2⅔33⅓3⅔4
B. Minimum edge distance (in.)1
Type of edgeNominal bolt diameter (in.)
¾11⅛1⅜
All edges11⅛1⅝1-23/321⅞
C. Maximum bolt spacing and edge distance (in.)
Type of edgeNominal bolt diameter (in.)
¼½¾11⅛
Centerline spacing269121212121212
Edge distance3666666

Notes:

1. Minimum edge distances, measured in the direction of force, may be reduced below these values, as long as bearing capacity is appropriately reduced (see Note 1 in Appendix Table A-4.19). Bearing and tearout limits must also be met.

2. Maximum centerline spacing is measured in the direction of the applied load (longitudinally), and is valid for members not subject to corrosion, whether painted or not. For unpainted weathering steel, the maximum spacing is 7 in. or, where the thinner member is less than ½ in., 14 times that member's thickness.


Table A-4.21: Size limitations (leg size, w) for fillet welds (in.)

diagram of fillet weldThickness, T, of material being joined (in.)1
T < ¼ in.T = ¼ in.¼ < T ≤ ½ in.½ < T ≤ ¾ in.¾ < T
Minimum weld size, w1/81/83/161/45/16
Maximum weld size, wT3/16T – 1/16 in.